Those resisting Islamic control, enslavement, rape and those whose entire property and family had been taken (rich or poor) or were unable to meet crushing taxes , had fled to the jungles. Islam never had complete control and millions resisted –they were not subjects (Khan p 98-99). People left the land resulting in famines killing thousands. Some became robbers.
Several Muslim rulers hunted people referred to as bandits and rebels (Muwattis), slaughtering the males and enslaving their women and children or slaughtering them too as Islamic law allows if they ‘resist’ (Reliance of the Traveller, Law o9.10 p 603).
Eg under Ghiyasuddin Balban (r 1265-85) as he cleared the jungles and areas around Delhi:
Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq (1325-51) hunted the jungle hideouts:
Emperor Jahangir hunted such rebels, enslaving and sending 200,000 (1619-20) to slave markets in Iran on one occasion (Khan p 251). A traveller in India (1612-14) noted Jahangir’s wealth and the extreme poverty of ordinary people.
Creating the Roma or Roma chave people:
Roma can mean man and Roma chave means sons of the Indian god Rama. Many people fled India to avoid enslavement or conversion –they are the Romanies or gypsies of today found throughout Europe (Hitler killed them too) and the US. Gypsy legends give their origin as India. ‘Researches based on their language, customs, rituals, and physiogonomy affirm that it is Hindus from India who form the bulk of these people in Europe.’ (Lal [a] p451).
Their 1st exodus seems to have occurred around the 7th century, coinciding with the Arab invasion of Sind. Mahmud Ghazni took them away in every campaign (997-1030) . The biggest group exited across Afghanistan to Europe in the 12th and 13th centuries following the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan by Muhammad Ghauri. THEY ARE FREEDOM LOVING PEOPLE, and skilled craftspeople with a remarkable talent for music. (Lal [a] p 451-2)
Slave uses: forced to serve Islam while Indian culture was trashed. What true Indian can tolerate this?
The slave armies of the Sultanate had Turks, Persians, Seljuks, Oghus (Iraqi Turkmen), Afghans and Khiljis and black slaves . When the Khilji’s came to power (1290-1320), the first non-slave rulers of India, enslaved and forcibly converted Indians appeared in the army, despite objections, because they feared an attack from outside India. They had just ousted the previous ‘Turkish’ rule and couldn’t trust the loyalty of any in the army! Sultan Firoz Tughlaq (r 1351-88) fearing attack by Islamized Mongols, allowed some Hindus into the army.
Indian soldiers, generally converted slaves with the lowest rank, cared for animals (elephants, horses) and performed personal service to higher ranks. They cleared jungles, made roads, set up camp and were in the front line of attacks to absorb the initial blows. Escape was impossible. Very few converted slaves rose to prominent position through valour and loyalty to the Muslim ruler (Khan p 304). .
Particularly following the formation of the Delhi sultanate (1206) many slaves were retained in India, employed in every possible occupation –from cleaning up filth, labouring, cutting jungles to playing music and singing (Lal [d] p 553) They were forced to build mosques, minarets and palaces using the materials from destroyed religious sites, libraries or monasteries etc of their own. The ‘might of Islam’ mosque (Qwat-ul-islam) in Delhi is built over an idol temple and uses materials from 27 destroyed Hindu and Jain temples. Likewise for Deli’s Qutb Minar minaret where the wonderful sculptured Hindu figures on the stones are defaced or upside down or concealed (Khan p 299-300)
Slaves worked in royal karkhana (factories or workhouses) particularly in the Sultanate and Mogul periods. They made everything from gifts, saddles, textiles, weapons...thousands were involved (Khan p 305)
Slaves served at court minded wives and concubines (Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan had 5,000-6,000 women each in 1556-1658). Slaves were guards and administrators. Slaves danced, sang, played musical instruments, cared for hunting and food animals and were physicians. Sultan Muhammad Shah Tughlaq had 1,200 physicians and 10,000 falconers plus 1,000 slave musicians who taught music (Khan p 306).
As usual, females and young boys provided sexual services. A Dutchman visiting India in the 17th century noted the sexual indulgence of Muslim rulers and noblemen who were pampered and entertained by concubines and wives and freely ‘enjoyed’ the concubines in the presence of the wife (Khan p310)
In the Sindh (Bahawalpur), before it was incorporated into Pakistan (1954), the last Nawab had over 390 women and needed a wide range of tools to satisfy them eg 600 dildos (Khan p 311)
Huge numbers of slaves were involved in building—eg 70,000 for Sultan Alauddin Khilji (1296-1316). Building great monuments to themselves never stopped as when one ruler died or was removed, the successor built his own new monuments and palaces eg abandoning Iltutmish’s old city, Sultan Ghiysuddin Balban (r1265-85) built the Qasr-i-Lal (Red Fort) in Delhi. Delhi was a series of cities built by different Muslim rulers.
Sultan Firoz Tughlaq (r1351-1388) had 180,000slaves. Of these a contingent of masons and builders with 12,000 slaves may have been involved in stone cutting alone! (Khan p 301). The buildings constructed during Islamic rule were designed and built by skilled Indian slave craftsmen, artisans and labourers at all levels, watched over by Muslim masters with whips (Korrah) (Khan p 301).
Humiliation and cruelty: When Sultan Mahmud (997-1030) brought Hindu King Jaipal of Kabul to Ghanzi and subjected him to extreme humiliation, Jaipal jumped into a fire. (Khan p 291). Balban (about 1260) brought Hindu leading men and men of position, bound, shackled and chained to Delhi where Sultan Nasiruddin had the leading men executed –rendering others ‘tamed.’ (Lal [c] p 542) As we have seen many times in this series, Islam does everything to strip others of their dignity, equality, honor and self-respect. The excessive Jizya tax is paid in a public humiliation procedure.
People were caught via lassos or ropes dragged around groups. They were tied, sometimes with iron shackles on the feet, sometimes around the neck and chained –until their spirit was broken and they were forcibly converted but they remained slaves. People capable of bearing arms were beheaded (Lal [d] p 552) . They were hit around the neck (no doubt reminding them they could be beheaded as they do when kafirs pay the jizya), forced on brutally long marches, exposed to the burning sun during the day and freezing cold at night, starved and given little water. Children were separated from parents. People writhed in agony and wailed (15th century report in Lal [c] p 543, Khan p 292)
Eunuchs: All over the Islamic world, the conquered were castrated, including in India. This was done so men could guard harems, provide carnal indulgence for rulers, give devotion to the ruler as they had no hope of a family of their own and of course, this quickly reduced the breeding stock of the conquered. Castration was a common practice throughout Muslim rule possibly contributing to the DECLINE in India’s population from 200 million in 1000 CE to 170 million in 1500 CE (Khan p 314)
Once Sultan Bakhtiyar Khilji conquered Bengal in 1205, it became a leading supplier of castrated slaves. This remained the case into the Mogul period (1526-1857).
Akbar the Great (1556-1605) owned eunuchs. Said Khan Chaghtai owned 1,200 eunuchs (an official of Akbar’s son Jahangir)! In Aurangzeb’s reign, in 1659 at Golkunda (Hyderabad), 22, 000 boys were emasculated and given to Muslim rulers and governors or sold. (Khan 313).
Sultan Alauddin Khilji (r 1296-1316) had 50,000 boys in his personal service; Sultan Muhammad Tughlaq (r1325-51) had 20,000 and Sultan Firoz Tughlaq (r 1351-1388) had 40,000 (Firoz Tulghlaq liked to collect boys in any way and had 180,000 slaves in total (Lal [c] p 542). Several commanders under various sultans were eunuchs. Muslim historians record the ‘infatuation’ of sultans Mahmud Ghazni, Qutbuddin Aibak, and Sikandar Lodi –for handsome young boys! Sultan Mahmud was infatuated by his Hindu commander Tilak (Khan p 314)
1) Worsening of social ills:
In an effort to avoid enslavement and rape certain social ills increased and new ones developed.
a) Sati: where a wife throws herself on the funeral pyre was commendable but not compulsory in Indian society. This possibly increased during Muslim invasions when many men were killed and women left vulnerable.
b) Child marriage: Girls were betrothed to young Hindu boys to protect the girls from Muslim predators...The British also attempted to stop this practice (Khan p 253)
c) Caste system: Egalitarian Islam is a lie—the low caste who converted were still despised by upper ranks of Muslims and couldn’t enter mosques etc and this continues today eg ‘Bengal’ (Khan p 249-250). Many lower caste Indians were the strongest fighters against Islam which is a very white Arab supremacist, apartheid system.
Nehru notes Islam: “made its caste system, which still had an element of flexibility in it, more rigid and fixed’ (Khan p 250)
Under Islam the lower castes increased as people were stripped of their wealth and position right down to farmers whose property was taken while people were subjected to crushing taxes –hence many were pushed to the lowest level.
These began under Islam, but stopped under British rule.
d) Jauhar:–unknown in pre-Islamic India. The earliest record occurs in the Chachnama by Muslim chronicler al-Kufi (Bostom p 81). Hindu women committed suicide by jumping into the fire (or other acts) to avoid enslavement and sexual violation by Muslims. When Qasim conquered Sindh, palace women set themselves on fire (Fort at Raor) (Lal [a] p 438). In Chittor jauhar occurred 3 times at least eg 1303 under attack by Alauddin Khilji, again in 1535 under attack by Bahadur Shah of Gujarat and in 1568 under attack by Akbar (possibly 8,000 women) Even in the time of partition into India and Pakistan (1947), it occurred again as non-Muslims eg Hindus were attacked (Khan p 252).
e) Thuggee cult (Thags): these were a religio-cultural cult of the goddess Kali who engaged in night-time robbery and murder. The British eradicated them through selective assassination, infiltration, police work and offering clemency for those who surrendered and cooperated.
In the reign of Feroz Shah Khilji (1290-96) reports record him capturing 1000 Thags ---the cult seems to have developed following the Islamic invasion and devastation.
Reports from others pre-Islam eg visitors from China, suggest that such crime was not the case pre-Islam. (Khan p 255)
While the British removed or attempted to remove these social ills and stopped enslavement, Muslims not only failed to stop social ills but worsened them. Indeed slavery and rape; child marriage; violence to women and to children who don’t pray, violence to non-Muslims; taking the property of non-Muslims; and an apartheid system of Muslim/non-Muslim, Male/female, white Arab/black Indian and many other ‘delights’ are part of Islam’s text, laws and ‘culture.’
2) Cultural, artistic and religious destruction; Backwardness and destruction of learning.
Even Nehru who gives a rosy picture of Islam noted:
Despite being a creative and learned population initially, India made no notable contribution to science, philosophy and literature during Islamic rule (Khan p 249). Pre-Islamic control, India had significant achievements in science, mathematics (zero, algebra, geometry, decimal system), literature, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, architecture and music. Pre-Islam’s arrival eg in 630-650s a Chinese pilgrim describes Indian boys and girls from age 7 studying grammar, science of arts and crafts, medicine, logic, and philosophy and that primary education was relatively widespread. Muslim Caliphs hired Indian mathematicians and physicians who set up hospitals and medical schools in Baghdad. (Khan p 201-204). Muslims from Baghdad came to Taxila (Takshashila) University to study medicine. Muslim students and others came to India to learn science, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, toxicology and more. The large number of reputed universities were eventually all destroyed by Muslims. At times Hindus rebuilt temples and returned to teaching only to have them repeatedly destroyed. Muslims set up madrassas for Muslims.
In 770, an Indian scholar brought two highly important mathematical works to Baghdad eg Brahmasiddhanta (Sindhind to Arabs) by the great 7th century Indian mathematician Brahmagupta –a mathematician and astronomer –which contained early ideas of algebra. The second manuscript contained a revolutionary system of denoting number and the concept of zero. In the 9th century, Muslim Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi took this work, combined it with Greek geometry (The Greek contribution in science, medicine, philosophy is huge), to become what we call today as algebra. Indian numerals were used by al-Khwarizmi in algorithms (a Latinized version of his name) to solve certain mathematical problems. Hence Muslims may have contributed but they certainly did not discover either zero or algebra and our so-called ‘Arabic Numerals’ are actually Indian (Hindu) Numerals.(Khan p 202) In Brahmagupta’s Khandakhadyaka (Arkanda), Arabs first became acquainted with a scientific system of astronomy in the 8th century. Books of medicine, toxicology, philosophy, chemistry and more were also taken into the Islamic world and translated. Indian mathematics became wide spread. Even a Spanish Muslim (11th century) praised the Indians for their superior knowledge in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology, chemistry... .(Khan p 203-4). (Note Mayans also developed zero long before Islam entered the world!)
India’s greatest mathematical system, the decimal system used today was the work of 3 great mathematicians—Bhashkaracharya and his daughter, Lilavati, and Brahmagupta.
Marco polo noted the praiseworthy female Rudramani Devi who ruled Telugu for 40 years (Khan p 255).
Alberuni (973-1050), a Persian scholar captured by Sultan Mahmud Ghazni (r 997-1030) was brought to India and travelled for 20 years studying Indian mathematics, philosophy, civil and religious law, geography, religion, astronomy (knowledge of the distance to planets, solar and lunar eclipses), physics and metaphysics and also India’s geography (cities etc) and customs. He wrote detailed books about these which informed invaders and facilitated their attacks and subjugation of India (Lal [a] p 448). He recorded the Muslim conquests of India, noting:
Tragically Indian builders and artists were forced into the service of Islam with its endless restrictions on representations of human s and other animals—but some evidence of India’s fabulous art with its wonderful representations of people (vigorous and sensual, Trifkovic p 110) etc still exists and hopefully will fully revive. It’s too distressing to think of what was destroyed!
3) Dhimmitude, destitution and decline of native, non-Muslim Indians: Indians became dhimmis subjected to extreme degradation, exploitation and humiliation in their own country. (see articles this site on dhimmitude in general and its economic, social, political and religious aspects –see Bat Ye’Or’s work.). Islamic text, the Pact of Umar and Islamic laws defining dhimmitude remain till the day of Judgement. The humiliating payment of the substantial jizya with its accompanying threat of death is only one of a mass of taxes, threats and abuses non-Muslims were subjected to. When scholar Qazi Mughisuddin advised Sultan Alauddin Khilji (r 1296-1316) on collection of the Kharaj (land tax causing extreme economic deprivation) he also suggested a humiliating procedure including:
Hindus became ‘serfs’ in their own land, forced to pay taxes and customs which considerably exceeded those required under Hindu law (Khan p 160). Conquests were for exploitation.
From Qasim on, extracting jizya was a political and religious duty exacted:
Eyewitnesses report in the 17th and 18th century that destitute peasants, their wives and children (males were castrated) were taken and sold by tax collectors to pay taxes. The people had become beggars in their own country (Khan p 88, 94, 283-4).
Also removal of livelihood, position and false charges were used to force others into Islam. The council of Surat noted in 1668:
4) Plunder of India’s wealth.
India’s wealth in its people or its resources and products were taken by Muslims and sent to markets or Islamic centres of power eg Ghazni (Afghanistan) or Samarkand (Central Asia). Wealth was also sent as tribute, gifts and slaves for caliphs in Damascus, Baghdad, Cairo or Tashkent until Akbar (Mughal) and also to Islam’s holy cities of Mecca and Medina, Rum (Constantinople), Persia and others even in the Mughal period. India’s wealth was transferred to the wider Islamic world while India was depleted and reduced to misery. From Mohammad, Islamic conquests were to plunder and loot the wealth of the conquered and to enslave and ‘convert’ and to impose heavy taxes on the remaining non-Muslims to keep the treasuries going. Because Islam also aims to spread Islam over all, it destroys the culture, religions, sacred and precious objects, and history of others.
Endless accounts from the beginning to the end describe the slaves, gold and silver idols and other objects, coins, precious stones, jewellery, furniture, clothes, cloths, indigo, Indian steel, equipment, grain, livestock (for food or used in battle, farming or transport), indeed everything was taken and usually what was left was burnt. Dead bodies were stripped of decent clothes, and pockets searched for coins, jewels etc (see Lal, Bostom, Khan).
The loss of bullion (gold, silver) destabilised and devalued Indian currency so Indian merchants lost credit with foreign merchants. India’s balance of trade was also adversely affected. India was nolonger a seller of raw and finished goods. Indian merchants couldn’t continue their trade. Some had to do deals with externally based Muslim rulers eg Mahmud of Ghazni (around 1012) to facilitate trade and allow caravans to travel unmolested! (Lal [a] p 444)
Why would people be creative, innovative or work hard when a Muslim could take it all?
5) White Arab supremacy:
Indians are dark skinned and hence subjected to Islam’s hatred of black/dark skinned people (see Mohammad’s and Islam’s antiBlack racism. Part D in Islam’s genocidal slavery:.). Also, non-Arab converts to Islam are always second class. Islam is a white Arab supremacist ideology where converts must turn on their own history and culture and obliterate them, then they must revere Arab culture, the Arab language etc. For legitimacy, rulers tried to claim a relationship to the Arabs particularly to Mohammad’s tribe (Quraysh). ‘Well into the 20th century, the dark-skinned Nawab of Bahawalpur (Sindh) who had an obsession for white women for producing brighter children, fanatically claimed his ancestry to the Abbasid family of the Quraysh clan’ (Khan p 181) This same absurdity is found amongst non-Arab Muslim leaders in many areas over time (eg Africa).
Hatred of black people is revealed in comments by Muslim conquerors of India in parts J, K which examine the jihad against India from comments made by the conquerors themselves or their chroniclers.
Conclusion: The inhuman behaviour applied to the whole population by Muslims was the same whether the Muslims were Sufis, Arabs, Afghanis, Turks, or Mogul as all followed Islam’s laws, text and the fine example of Mohammad. It should also be noted that the violence and enslavement continued even after they had virtual control over India because the aim was not merely to conquer but to force all into Islam. Muslims did not come to join Indian society, they came to wipe it out and replace it with Islam—which tells them that they own everything because it’s the booty promised by allah. The pagans/idolaters, polytheists had to convert or die and only then could there be (Islamic) peace! Slaves were the just reward for Islam's fighters--part of the booty promised by allah.
2) Khan, M. A. ‘Islamic Jihad: A legacy of forced conversion, imperialism and slavery.’ iUniverse, Bloomington, IN. 2009. (An Indian ex-Muslim)
3) Lal [a], K.S. Muslims invade India p 433-455 in Bostom (1) above.
4) Lal [b], K.S. Jihad under the Turks and jihad under the Mughals p 456-461 in Bostom (1) above.
5) Lal [c], K.S. Slave-taking during Muslim rule p535-548 in Bostom (1) above.
6) Lal [d], K.S. Enslavement of Hindus by Arab and Turkish invaders p 549-554 in bostom (1) above.
7) Lal [e], K.S. The Origins of Muslim slave system p 529-534 in bostom (1) above.
8) Reliance of the Traveller: A classic manual of Islamic sacred law. In Arabic with facing English Text, commentary and appendices edited and translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller Al-Misri, Ahmad ibn Naqib; Amana publications Maryland USA 1994.
9) Sookhdeo, P. ‘Global Jihad: The future in the face of Militant Islam.’ Isaac Publishing. 2007.
10) Trifkovic, S. ‘The sword of the prophet.’ Regina Orthodox Press, Inc. 2002.
11) Ye’or, Bat. ‘Islam and Dhimmitude: Where civilisations collide’ translated from the French by Miriam Kochan and David Littman. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press 2002, reprint 2005.